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NUMBER  
AUTHOR Cha, Jae Choon
TITLE UNKNOTTED GROPES, WHITNEY TOWERS, AND DOUBLY SLICING KNOTS
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JOURNAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY, 2019
ABSTRACT We study the structure of the exteriors of gropes and Whitney towers in dimension 4, focusing on their fundamental groups. In particular we introduce a notion of unknottedness of gropes and Whitney towers in the 4-sphere. We prove that various modifications of gropes and Whitney towers preserve the unknottedness and do not enlarge the fundamental group. We exhibit handlebody structures of the exteriors of gropes and Whitney towers constructed by earlier methods of Cochran, Teichner, Horn, and the first author and use them to construct examples of unknotted gropes and Whitney towers. As an application, we introduce geometric bi-filtrations of knots which approximate the double sliceness in terms of unknotted gropes and Whitney towers. We prove that the bi-filtrations do not stabilize at any stage.
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